I’ve become enamored with IllumOS recently. Years ago, I used Solaris (2.5.1 through 8) at IBM. Unfortunately (for me), I stopped using it before Solaris 10 brought all the cool toys to the yard - zones, zfs, dtrace, SMF. Thanks to OmniTI’s excellent IllumOS distribution, OmniOS, I’m getting acclimated with the awesomeness. I plan to write more about my experiences here.
First up, I spent today playing with zones. Zones are a kernel-level container technology similar to Linux containers/cgroups, or BSD jails. They’re fast and lightweight. At least two of the plans I have for them:
- Segregating the services on my home-server.
- Adding support to various tools in Chef’s ecosystem.
The following is basically a compilation of several different blog posts and documentation collections I’ve been poring over. Like most technical blog writers, I’m posting this so I can find it later :-).
I have a number of options for learning OmniOS. I have spare hardware, or VMware, or OmniTI’s Vagrant box. I’m doing all three of these, but the main use will be on physical hardware, as I’m planning to port the aforementioned server to OmniOS (#1, above).
The details of the hardware are not important, except that I have a
hard disk device
c3t1d0, and a physical NIC device
nge1 that are
devoted to zones. To adapt these instructions for your own
installation, change those device names where appropriate.
You can find the name of the disk device to use in your system with
root@menthe:~# format Searching for disks...done AVAILABLE DISK SELECTIONS: 0. c3t0d0 <ATA-WDCWD1500AHFD-0-7QR5 cyl 18238 alt 2 hd 255 sec 63> /pci@0,0/pci1043,cb84@d/disk@0,0 1. c3t1d0 <ATA-SAMSUNG HD501LJ-0-12-465.76GB> /pci@0,0/pci1043,cb84@d/disk@1,0 Specify disk (enter its number): ^D
Here I wanted to use the Samsung disk.
dladm to find the network devices:
root@menthe:~# dladm show-phys LINK MEDIA STATE SPEED DUPLEX DEVICE nge0 Ethernet up 1000 full nge0 nge1 Ethernet up 1000 full nge1
The example zone here is named
base with any zone
name you wish, e.g.
noodlebarn. It’s also worth
noting that I’m going to use DHCP, rather than static networking here.
There are plenty of guides out there for static networking, and I had
to hunt around for DHCP. Also worth noting is that this was all
performed right after installing the OS.
First, create a zpool to use for zones. This is a 500G disk, so I have plenty of space.
zpool create zones c3t1d0
Next, create a VNIC on the interface which is devoted to zones
nge1). It can be named anything, but must end with a number.
dladm create-vnic -l nge1 vnicbase0
Rather than use the
zonecfg REPL, I used the following configuration
file, for repeatability.
create -b set zonepath=/zones/base set ip-type=exclusive set autoboot=false add net set physical=vnicbase0 end commit
Use this config file to configure the zone with
zonecfg -z base -f base.conf
Now we’re ready to install the OS in the new zone. This may take awhile as all the packages need to be downloaded.
zoneadm -z base install
nsswitch.conf(4) does not use DNS for hosts. This is
fairly standard for Solaris/IllumOS. Also, the
resolv.conf(4) is not
configured automatically, which is a departure from automagic Linux
distributions (and a thing I agree with).
cp /etc/nsswitch.dns /etc/resolv.conf /zones/base/root/etc
OmniOS does not use
so the way to make the new zone boot up with an interface configured
for DHCP is to write out the
ipadm.conf configuration for
The following is
base.ipadm.conf that I used, with the
VNIC created with
_ifname=vnicbase0;_family=2; _ifname=vnicbase0;_family=26; _ifname=vnicbase0;_aobjname=vnicbase0/v4;_dhcp=-1,no;
Copy this file to the zone.
cp base.ipadm.conf /zones/base/root/etc/ipadm/ipadm.conf
Now, boot the zone.
zoneadm -z base boot
Now you can log into the newly created zone and verify that things are working, and do any further configuration required.
zlogin -e ! base
! as the escape character because I’m logging into my global
zone over SSH. This means you disconnect with
!. instead of
Once complete, the zone can be cloned.
Clone a Zone
I’m going to clone the
base zone to
clonebase. Again, rename this
to whatever you like.
First, a zone must be halted before it can be cloned.
zoneadm -z base halt
Now, create a new VNIC for the zone.
dladm create-vnic -l nge1 clonebase
base zone’s configuration, and replace
zonecfg -z base export | sed 's/base/clonebase/g' | tee clonebase.conf
Then, create the new zone configuration, and clone the base zone.
zonecfg -z clonebase -f clonebase.conf zoneadm -z clonebase clone base
Again, ensure that the network configuration to use DNS is available.
cp /etc/nsswitch.dns /etc/resolv.conf /zones/clonebase/root/etc
ipadm.conf config for the new zone. I named it
sed 's/base/clonebase/g' base.ipadm.conf > clonebase.ipadm.conf
Now copy this to the zone.
cp clonebase.ipadm.conf /zones/clonebase/root/etc/ipadm/ipadm.conf
Finally, boot the new zone.
zoneadm -z clonebase boot
Login and verify the new zone.
zlogin -e ! clonebase
Use the following to clean up the zone when it’s not needed anymore.
zone=clonebase zoneadm -z $zone halt zoneadm -z $zone uninstall -F zonecfg -z $zone delete -F
This gist contains all the things I did above minus the prose.
I have a few goals in mind for this system. First of all, I want to manage the zones with Chef, of course. Some of the functions of the zones may be:
- IPS package repository
- Omnibus build system for OmniOS
- Adding OmniOS support to cookbooks
I also want to facilitate plugins and the ecosystem around Chef for IllumOS, including zone based knife, vagrant and test-kitchen plugins.
The following links were helpful in composing this post, and of course for the reference material they contain.
- http://omnios.omniti.com/ticket.php/11 (related to above list post(s))